In this paper we introduce JuliaSim, a high-performance programming environment designed to blend traditional modeling and simulation with machine learning. JuliaSim can build accelerated surrogates from component-based models, such as those conforming to the FMI standard, using continuous-time echo state networks (CTESN). The foundation of this environment, ModelingToolkit.jl, is an acausal modeling language which can compose the trained surrogates as components within its staged compilation process. As a complementary factor we present the JuliaSim model library, a standard library with differential-algebraic equations and pre-trained surrogates, which can be composed using the modeling system for design, optimization, and control. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the surrogate-accelerated modeling and simulation approach on HVAC dynamics by showing that the CTESN surrogates accurately capture the dynamics of a HVAC cycle at less than 4% error while accelerating its simulation by 340x. We illustrate the use of surrogate acceleration in the design process via global optimization of simulation parameters using the embedded surrogate, yielding a speedup of two orders of magnitude to find the optimum. We showcase the surrogate deployed in a co-simulation loop, as a drop-in replacement for one of the coupled FMUs, allowing engineers to effectively explore the design space of a coupled system. Together this demonstrates a workflow for automating the integration of machine learning techniques into traditional modeling and simulation processes.